Bimini Road

Unfortunately, the situation is quite different in the case of thin layers of calcite that overlie Palaeolithic cave drawings. The conditions under which calcite forms depend largely on the hydrologic activity, which has greatly varied over the course of the Upper Palaeolithic and Holocene. In many cases, we can see that the growth of speleothems stopped during much of the Upper Palaeolithic. Consequently the ages obtained are minimum ages terminus ante quem which are frequently much younger than the real ages of the underlying artworks. Moreover, a much more serious but rarely considered source of error contradicts the assumption of a closed system. In thin layers of carbonate deposits and in damp media, the uranium incorporated into the calcite during its crystallization may be partially eliminated because of its solubility in water. Uranium leaching causes an artificial increase of the age that may reach considerable proportions e.

Creation vs. Evolution

Thorium, also, is potentially of great economic value, because one of its isotopes, thorium , can be converted into the fissionable isotope uranium in a nuclear breeder reactor i. This and other physical properties such as melting and boiling points are greatly affected by small amounts of certain impurities, such as carbon and thorium dioxide. Thorium is added to magnesium and magnesium alloys to improve their high-temperature strength.

It has been used in commercial photoelectric cells for measuring ultraviolet light of wavelengths ranging from to angstroms.

McFaddin Beach is a kilometer long stretch of sandy beach in Jefferson County on the upper Texas Gulf coast, extending from High Island on the west to Sea Rim State Park on the east.

How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case.

Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age. Again, the results were good. In , Libby and his team published their results.

McFaddin Beach

After Valentine, the Bimini Road has been visited and examined by geologists, avocational archaeologists, professional archaeologists, anthropologists, marine engineers, innumerable divers, and many other people. In addition to the Bimini Road, investigators have found two additional “pavement-like” linear features that lie parallel to and shoreward of the Bimini Wall. Descriptions of the Bimini Road found in various books and articles greatly exaggerate the regularity and rectangularity of the blocks composing these features.

Geochronology – Nonradiometric dating: In addition to radioactive decay, many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a.

Mineralogy As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology. Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology. The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself.

Nepheline greasy light gray , sodalite blue , cancrinite yellow , feldspar white , and ferromagnesian minerals black in an alkalic syenite from Litchfield, Maine, U. About 3, distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of the Earth.

Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives. Limestones , which are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite. Many rocks have a more complex mineralogy, and in some the mineral particles are so minute that they can be identified only through specialized techniques. It is possible to identify an individual mineral in a specimen by examining and testing its physical properties.

Geology Glossary – Definitions of Geologic Terms

Karst areas consist of chemically soluble rock such as limestone and gypsum. It can be associated with diamonds or gold. The size of the fragments ranges from sand- to cobble-size.

How radiometric dating works in general: Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is .

Precious Metals Population is not of concern if there are enough resources to go around. Important resources like water of suitable quality for growing crops, drinking, cooking, and cleanliness, fertile soil for growing food and trees, and fuel for warmth and cooking. Depletion of important resources leads to poverty, disease, malnutrion and often death. Impoverished people are usually forced to destroy their environment in order to survive.

Sustainability is the practice of conservation that will allow people to have enough resources through their life and the lives of future generations. Sustainability is possible by conserving energy, materials, resources, by new technologies, and by ensuring that the number of births is low enough so that there is enough to go around. Sustainability and Population Karen Gaia Pitts Carrying Capacity and Ecological Footprints Health ministry releases video praising the healthy lifestyle and reproduction of rabbits to encourage couples to have more children November 8, , Guardian The Polish government is encouraging citizens to go forth and multiply – like rabbits.

The health ministry of Poland has put out a short YouTube video praising rabbits for producing a lot of offspring. It is the latest step by the conservative government in this mostly Catholic country of 38 million to reverse a shrinking population. European Union figures show that Poland’s birth rate was 1.

Portugal had a lower fertility rate, and Spain and Greece were almost as low as Poland.

Geology Glossary – Definitions of Geologic Terms

To bring forth, as young; to yean. A lamb just brought forth; a yeanling. The organ of hearing; the external ear.

Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.

Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils.

Whiston added comets to Burnet’s cosmogony as the source of the waters of the flood.

Geology Glossary – Definitions of Geologic Terms

Instead they are now publishing an abbreviated version on their Total Energy web page titled: They have just released their latest data through February All the data below is in thousand barrels per day and through February unless otherwise noted.

The pre-scientific period before AD In the pre-scientific era the Biblical account and the speculations of the Greek philosophers were accepted without great question.

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.

When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.

I claim no copyright on this document, and grant its use to the public domain.

Isotopes of thorium

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Nonradiometric dating In addition to radioactive decay , many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a priori grounds whether such rates are representative of the past.

Age of the Bimini Road. Attempts have been made to determine the age of the Bimini Road using different techniques. These attempts include direct radiocarbon dating of the stones composing the Bimini Road and Uranium-thorium dating of the marine limestone on which the Bimini Road lies.

Stright, Lear, and Bennett A chipped-stone projectile point lies amid broken shell and other beach detritus washed onshore. Photo by David Crain. Backhoe Trench 1, dug in August, , was one of several backhoe trenches dug through the beach and marsh sediments before pipeline construction. No archeological deposits were found. Photo by Thomas R. Geologic cross-section of Clam Lake immediately inland from McFaddin Beach, reconstructed by coring through the marsh.

Adapted from Morton et al. Images adapted from illustrations by K. Milliken from Anderson

World Population Awareness

Thorium [ edit ] Th is an isotope of thorium with neutrons. It was once named Radiothorium, due to its occurrence in the disintegration chain of thorium It has a half-life of 1. It undergoes alpha decay to Ra.

A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts’ book Social Science History and to other resources.

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.

We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.

EIA World Crude Oil Production


Population is not of concern if there are enough resources to go around. Important resources like water of suitable quality for growing crops, drinking, cooking, and cleanliness, fertile soil for growing food and trees, and fuel for warmth and cooking.


Uranium-lead dating